84,99 € *

ggf. zzgl. Versand

ggf. zzgl. Versand

August 6, 2009 Author, Jon Kleinberg, was recently cited in the New York Times for his statistical analysis research in the Internet age. Algorithm Design introduces algorithms by looking at the real-world problems that motivate them. The book teaches students a range of design and analysis techniques for problems that arise in computing applications. The text encourages an understanding of the algorithm design process and an appreciation of the role of algorithms in the broader field of computer science. Features + Benefits Focus on problem analysis and design techniques. Discussion is grounded in concrete problems and examples rather than abstract presentation of principles, with representative problems woven throughout the text. Over 200 well crafted problems from companies such as Yahoo!® and Oracle®. Each problem has been class tested for usefulness and accuracy in the authors' own undergraduate algorithms courses. Broad coverage of algorithms for dealing with NP-hard problems and the application of randomization, increasingly important topics in algorithms. Algorithm DesignJon Kleinberg and Eva TardosTable of Contents 1 Introduction: Some Representative Problems 1.1 A First Problem: Stable Matching 1.2 Five Representative Problems Solved ExercisesExcercisesNotes and Further Reading2 Basics of Algorithms Analysis 2.1 Computational Tractability 2.2 Asymptotic Order of Growth Notation 2.3 Implementing the Stable Matching Algorithm using Lists and Arrays 2.4 A Survey of Common Running Times 2.5 A More Complex Data Structure: Priority Queues Solved Exercises Exercises Notes and Further Reading3 Graphs 3.1 Basic Definitions and Applications 3.2 Graph Connectivity and Graph Traversal 3.3 Implementing Graph Traversal using Queues and Stacks 3.4 Testing Bipartiteness: An Application of Breadth-First Search 3.5 Connectivity in Directed Graphs 3.6 Directed Acyclic Graphs and Topological Ordering Solved Exercises Exercises Notes and Further Reading 4 Divide and Conquer 4.1 A First Recurrence: The Mergesort Algorithm 4.2 Further Recurrence Relations 4.3 Counting Inversions 4.4 Finding the Closest Pair of Points 4.5 Integer Multiplication 4.6 Convolutions and The Fast Fourier Transform Solved Exercises Exercises Notes and Further Reading5 Greedy Algorithms 5.1 Interval Scheduling: The Greedy Algorithm Stays Ahead 5.2 Scheduling to Minimize Lateness: An Exchange Argument 5.3 Optimal Caching: A More Complex Exchange Argument 5.4 Shortest Paths in a Graph 5.5 The Minimum Spanning Tree Problem 5.6 Implementing Kruskal's Algorithm: The Union-Find Data Structure 5.7 Clustering 5.8 Huffman Codes and the Problem of Data Compression*5.9 Minimum-Cost Arborescences: A Multi-Phase Greedy Algorithm Solved Exercises Excercises Notes and Further Reading 6 Dynamic Programming 6.1 Weighted Interval Scheduling: A Recursive Procedure 6.2 Weighted Interval Scheduling: Iterating over Sub-Problems 6.3 Segmented Least Squares: Multi-way Choices 6.4 Subset Sums and Knapsacks: Adding a Variable 6.5 RNA Secondary Structure: Dynamic Programming Over Intervals 6.6 Sequence Alignment 6.7 Sequence Alignment in Linear Space 6.8 Shortest Paths in a Graph 6.9 Shortest Paths and Distance Vector Protocols *6.10 Negative Cycles in a Graph Solved ExercisesExercisesNotes and Further Reading7 Network Flow 7.1 The Maximum Flow Problem and the Ford-Fulkerson Algorithm 7.2 Maximum Flows and Minimum Cuts in a Network 7.3 Choosing Good Augmenting Paths *7.4 The Preflow-Push Maximum Flow Algorithm 7.5 A First Application: The Bipartite Matching Problem 7.6 Disjoint Paths in Directed and Undirected Graphs 7.7 Extensions to the Maximum Flow Problem 7.8 Survey Design 7.9 Airline Scheduling 7.10 Image Segmentation 7.11 Project Selection 7.12 Baseball Elimination *7.13 A Further Direction: Adding Costs to the Matching Problem Solved ExercisesExercisesNotes and Further Reading 8 NP and Computational Intractability 8.1 Polynomial-Time Reductions 8.2 Reductions via "Gadgets": The Satisfiability Problem 8.3 Efficient Certification and the Definition of NP 8.4 NP-Complete Problems 8.5 Sequencing Problems 8.6 Partitioning Problems 8.7 Graph Coloring8.8 Numerical Problems 8.9 Co-NP and the Asymmetry of NP8.10 A Partial Taxonomy of Hard Problems Solved Exercises Exercises Notes and Further Reading9 PSPACE: A Class of Problems Beyond NP9.1 PSPACE 9.2 Some Hard Problems in PSPACE 9.3 Solving Quantified Problems and Games in Polynomial Space9.4 Solving the Planning Problem in Polynomial Space9.5 Proving Problems PSPACE-Complete Solved ExercisesExercisesNotes and Further Reading 10 Extending the Limits of Tractability 10.1 Finding Small Vertex Covers 10.2 Solving NP-Hard Problem on Trees 10.3 Coloring a Set of Circular Arcs *10.4 Tree Decompositions of Graphs *10.5 Constructing a Tree Decomposition Solved Exercises Exercises Notes and Further Reading11 Approximation Algorithms 11.1 Greedy Algorithms and Bounds on the Optimum: A Load Balancing Problem 11.2 The Center Selection Problem 11.3 Set Cover: A General Greedy Heuristic 11.4 The Pricing Method: Vertex Cover 11.5 Maximization via the Pricing method: The Disjoint Paths Problem 11.6 Linear Programming and Rounding: An Application to Vertex Cover *11.7 Load Balancing Revisited: A More Advanced LP Application 11.8 Arbitrarily Good Approximations: the Knapsack Problem Solved ExercisesExercisesNotes and Further Reading 12 Randomized Algorithms 12.1 A First Application: Contention Resolution 12.2 Finding the Global Minimum Cut 12.3 Random Variables and their Expectations 12.4 A Randomized Approximation Algorithm for MAX 3-SAT 12.5 Randomized Divide-and-Conquer: Median-Finding and Quicksort 12.6 Hashing: A Randomized Implementation of Dictionaries 12.7 Finding the Closest Pair of Points: A Randomized Approach 12.8 Randomized Caching 12.9 Chernoff Bounds 12.10 Load Balancing *12.11 Packet Routing 12.12 Background: Some Basic Probability DefinitionsSolved ExercisesExercisesNotes and Further Reading 13 Local Search 13.1 The Landscape of an Optimization Problem 13.2 The Metropolis Algorithm and Simulated Annealing 13.3 An Application of Local Search to Hopfield Neural Networks 13.4 Maximum Cut Approximation via Local Search 13.5 Choosing a Neighbor Relation *13.6 Classification via Local Search 13.7 Best-Response Dynamics and Nash EquilibriaSolved ExercisesExercisesNotes aAugust 6, 2009 Author, Jon Kleinberg, was recently cited in the for his statistical analysis research in the Internet age. Algorithm Design introduces algorithms by looking at the real-world problems that motivate them. The book teaches students a range of design and analysis techniques for problems that arise in computing applications. The text encourages an understanding of the algorithm design process and an appreciation of the role of algorithms in the broader field of computer science.

Anbieter: buecher

Stand: 02.07.2020 Zum Angebot

Stand: 02.07.2020 Zum Angebot

84,99 € *

ggf. zzgl. Versand

ggf. zzgl. Versand

Anbieter: buecher

Stand: 02.07.2020 Zum Angebot

Stand: 02.07.2020 Zum Angebot

49,00 € *

ggf. zzgl. Versand

ggf. zzgl. Versand

This book is intended to determine the stability of one space dimension diffusion equation. A Matlab code of finite difference methods with increment of time-space was used in which the behaviour of the errors was observed from the graphs. The explicit scheme was stable with Dirichlet boundary condition when considering space for r less than or equal to 0.5. It was observed that as the gradient alpha of temperature decreases with derivative boundary conditions, the interval of r for the explicit scheme stet stable decreases from the values r less than or equal to 0.5 corresponding to Dirichlet boundary conditions. When the term with coefficient gamma is added to the PDE,explicit scheme becomes stable depending to the value of gamma. The Crank-Nicolson and semi-analytic schemes were stable with both Dirichlet boundary conditions and derivative boundary conditions for all r. It was observed that the Crank-Nicolson scheme was accurate than explicit scheme. The semi-analytic method has only one source of error, the space discretization also it is able to solve for a vector of time simultaneously. But with sufficient small r all three methods were performed well.

Anbieter: Dodax

Stand: 02.07.2020 Zum Angebot

Stand: 02.07.2020 Zum Angebot

35,90 € *

ggf. zzgl. Versand

ggf. zzgl. Versand

There has been a remarkable shift in the cropping patterns in Haryana, India since the Green Revolution. In Haryana 1.23 million hectares area is reported under rice cultivation with total production of 3.99 million tonnes and productivity of 3.26 t/ha during 2013-14 and around 60 per cent area is covered under basmati group of rice in the province. For manipulation of crop environment to best advantage, an understanding of physiological, phenological and agrometeorological bases of yield formation by analysing growth and yield in relation to planting methods can be of great help in higher and stable yields of rice. This book is divided into six chapters highlighting the rationale of the study along with objectives, compilation of relevant literature indicating the present status of the problem, detailed account of research methodology used, findings of the study along with tables, graphs and illustrations, discussion about the results and their interpretation in the light of available literature and summary and conclusion of the research work. In the last, bibliography has been given. This book will especially prove a useful reference tool.

Anbieter: Dodax

Stand: 02.07.2020 Zum Angebot

Stand: 02.07.2020 Zum Angebot

49,00 € *

ggf. zzgl. Versand

ggf. zzgl. Versand

The literature on changing and unchanging domination number discusses about the changes in the minimum dominating set on a graph by vertex, edge addition and deletion. Edge contraction and edge subdivision are in some sense duals of each other. In the former case the number of vertices is reduced by one and the number of edges is reduced at least by one while,- in the latter case the number of vertices and edges is increased by one. This property of the two graph operations provide a scope to study and compare when and how the minimum dominating set of a graph does not change, on applying these graph operations. This book is dedicated entirely to introduce and explore the stable property of the minimum dominating set of a graph G with respect to the two graph operations. It also relates them to Excellent Graphs. This book would be of interest to researchers working in domination theory.

Anbieter: Dodax

Stand: 02.07.2020 Zum Angebot

Stand: 02.07.2020 Zum Angebot

49,80 € *

ggf. zzgl. Versand

ggf. zzgl. Versand

This thesis deals with the application of nano-scaled silver particles for die attachment in power electronics. The goal is to lower the levels of the parameters time (60-180 s), pressure (30-50 MPa) and temperature (230-250 °C) that are needed for the state-of-the-art sintering process using micron-scaled silver flakes. The main focus is on reducing the pressure needed as high scrap rates have to be expected for high levels of pressure. First, the sintering of different silver powders is compared. The results indicate that the capping material passivating the nano-scaled silver particles defines the sintering behaviour: the process cannot start until the coating is removed. The polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone proves to be too stable to be decomposed at the desired temperatures of less than 300 °C. Particles capped with oleic acid sinter very well in air. Only poor sintering can be detected in absence of oxygen, though. It follows that the adsorbed oleic acid decomposes by means of oxidation. Density measurements are used to track the sintering of stencil printed layers of a silver nanopaste. The silver particles in the paste are sized 30-50 nm and passivated with oleic acid. Rising densities with increasing time and temperature can be detected. After 3600 s at 300 °C, a relative density of 0.70 times the one of pure silver is reached for example. The graphs of density versus time show a distinct sectioning. A fast rise occurs during the initial phase of sintering. After this, the density trends towards a plateau. The initial slope steepens noticeably with increasing temperature. This is credited to the decomposition kinetics of the passivation material. Once it is removed, the particles sinter very quickly. Silver layers that are covered by a chip sinter considerably worse. The reason is the limitation of oxygen supply that leads to a slower degradation of the oleic acid. This can be more than compensated by applying pressure. Sintering for 60 s at 275 °C and 5 MPa leads to a density of 0.75. Three test series are run to investigate the influences of the parameters time, pressure and temperature on density individually. After this, the mechanical properties of the bonds are analysed. Young’s modulus and strength are measured. It is shown that both can be described by power laws of the density. A sinter interconnection formed at 60 s, 275 °C, 5 MPa has a Young’s modulus of 44.3 GPa and a shear strength of 40.1 MPa for example. Hence, the shear strength is comparable to those of solders. Finally, reliability tests are run in order to establish estimates for the lifetime of the die attach layers. Thermal cycling and power cycling tests are used to determine the number of cycles to failure depending on the sinter parameters. Solder materials are tested for benchmarking. All the sintered interconnects show a considerably better reliability than the lead-free Sn96.5Ag3Cu0.5 solder. Comparing the differently sintered silver layers, an increase of lifetime with density can be observed. The quality of the interface plays a decisive role, too. The sintered bonds cannot be destroyed during the power cycling experiment between +45 °C and +175 °C. A Coffin-Manson model is applied to merge the results of thermal and power cycling. Using this model, a 4000 times longer lifetime than the one of soldered specimens can be extrapolated for the sintered die attachment in power cycling.

Anbieter: Dodax

Stand: 02.07.2020 Zum Angebot

Stand: 02.07.2020 Zum Angebot

79,00 € *

ggf. zzgl. Versand

ggf. zzgl. Versand

This is the Second book in the series on Dynamic Universe Model describing the SITA software in EXCEL emphasizing the singularity free portions additionally. It explains more than 21000 (Twenty one thousand) different equations, in 43 different groups with additional 14 Index functions and 69 single equations. There are 16 ranges, 11 macros & processes and 18 graphs to view and monitor various parameters. Here in this, a solution to N-body problem-called Dynamic Universe Model (SITA) is presented, which is singularity-free, inter-body collision free and dynamically stable. The Excel EQUATIONS to all the six cases proving that NO singularity exist in the earlier book are given here with software. Viz., three non-zero cases Angular momentum, Polar moment of Inertia, Internal Distances between all pairs of point masses Stability criteria like specific relative angular momentum is constant, None of the masses are moving towards center, and Total energy = h= T-V = NEGATIVE . This SITA solution can be used by anyone who knows EXCEL and little bit interested in Physics for solving presently unsolved applications from the Solar system level, to Cosmology level via Galaxy level.

Anbieter: Dodax

Stand: 02.07.2020 Zum Angebot

Stand: 02.07.2020 Zum Angebot

49,90 € *

ggf. zzgl. Versand

ggf. zzgl. Versand

In this book mathematical models are developed for different types of free convective heat and mass transfer flows. Magnetic field, chemical reaction, viscous dissipation, porous medium, heat generation, temperature oscillation, ramped wall temperature and Newtonian heating effects are also included in the mathematical models. Stable and convergent finite difference and finite element numerical methods have been used to solve the governing unsteady, coupled, non-linear partial differential equations. Validation of computations is achieved with a MATLAB-based Chebyschev spectral code for transient viscous flows, TranSpecS, He's powerful Variational Iteration Method and Laplace transform technique. The effects of various parameters on the velocity field, temperature and concentration profiles as well as the skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are evaluated in detail with the aid of graphs and tables. It is hoped that this book will be useful for the students and researchers who are working on fluid dynamics and heat and mass transfer problems.

Anbieter: Dodax

Stand: 02.07.2020 Zum Angebot

Stand: 02.07.2020 Zum Angebot

117,69 € *

ggf. zzgl. Versand

ggf. zzgl. Versand

The science of graphs and networks has become by now a well-established tool for modelling and analyzing a variety of systems with a large number of interacting components. Starting from the physical sciences, applications have spread rapidly to the natural and social sciences, as well as to economics, and are now further extended, in this volume, to the concept of innovations, viewed broadly. In an abstract, systems-theoretical approach, innovation can be understood as a critical event which destabilizes the current state of the system, and results in a new process of self-organization leading to a new stable state. The contributions to this anthology address different aspects of the relationship between innovation and networks. The various chapters incorporate approaches in evolutionary economics, agent-based modeling, social network analysis and econophysics and explore the epistemic tension between insights into economics and society-related processes, and the insights into new forms of complex dynamics.

Anbieter: Dodax

Stand: 02.07.2020 Zum Angebot

Stand: 02.07.2020 Zum Angebot