Stable Isotope Ecology:Biology, Ecology CTI Reviews
Volume 43 of Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry follows the 1986 Reviews in Mineralogy (Vol. 16) in approach but reflects significant changes in the field of Stable Isotope Geochemistry. In terms of new technology, new sub-disciplines, and numbers of researchers, the field has changed more in the past decade than in any other since that of its birth. Unlike the 1986 volume, which was restricted to high temperature fields, this book covers a wider range of disciplines. However, it would not be possible to fit a comprehensive review into a single volume. Our goal is to provide state-of-the-art reviews in chosen subjects that have emerged or advanced greatly since 1986. This volume was prepared for Short Course on Stable Isotope Geochemistry presented November 2-4, 2001 in conjunction with the annual meetings of the Geological Society of America in Boston, Massachusetts.
Volume 16 of Reviews in Mineralogy inroduces to high-temperature stable isotope geochemistry and should provide an entry into the pertinent literature, as well as some understanding of the basic concepts and potential applications.The first three chapters focus on the theory and experimental data base for equilibrium, disequilibrium, and kinetics of stable isotope exchange reactions among geologically important minerals and fluids. The fourth chapter discusses the primordial oxygen isotope variations in the solar system prior to formation of the Earth, along with a discussion of isotopic anomalies in meteorites. The fifth chapter discusses isotopic variations in the Earth´s mantle and the sixth chapter reviews the variations in the isotopic compositions of natural waters on our planet. In Chapters 7, 8, 9 and 10, these isotopic constraints and concepts are applied to various facets of the origin and evolution of igneous rocks, bringing in much material on radiogenic isotopes as well, because these problems require a multi-dimensional attack for their solution. In Chapters 11 and 12, the problems of hydrothermal alteration by meteoric waters and ocean water are considered, together with discussions of the physics and chemistry of hydrothermal systems and the 18O/16O history of ocean water. Finally, in Chapters 13 and 14, these concepts are applied to problems of metamorphic petrology and ore deposits, particularly with respect to the origins of the fluids involved in those processes.
The goal for Volume 55 of Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry was to bring together a summary of the isotope geochemistry of non-traditional stable isotope systems as is known through 2003 for those elements that have been studied in some detail, and which have a variety of geochemical properties. In addition, recognizing that many of these elements are of interest to workers who are outside the traditional stable isotope fields, we felt it was important to include discussions on the broad isotopic variations that occur in the solar system, theoretical approaches to calculating isotopic fractionations, and the variety of analytical methods that are in use. We hope, therefore, that this volume proves to be useful to not only the isotope specialist, but to others who are interested in the contributions that these non-traditional stable isotopes may make toward understanding geochemical and biological cycles. The review chapters in this volume were the basis for a two-day short course on nontraditional stable isotopes held prior (May 15-16, 2004) to the spring AGU/CGU Meeting in Montreal, Canada.
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This volume discusses popular methods to achieve different types of mutagenesis and forward/reverse genetics in Medicago truncatula. Several studies on genetic control of developmental and metabolic processes in this model legume are also described. The chapters in this book cover topics such as Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING), Fast Neutron Bombardment (FNB), Tnt1 insertional mutagenesis, Virus-Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS), stable inactivation of microRNAs in roots, gene editing by CRISPR- Cas9 , etc. This book also contains reviews on the specific use of these techniques in functional studies on the genetic control of seed, leaf, root, nodule, floral and fruit development in M. truncatula. Written for the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters contain the kind of detailed description and implementation advice needed to promote success in the lab. Cutting-edge and thorough, Functional Genomics in Medicago truncatula: Methods and Protocols is a valuable resource for anyone interested in learning more about this developing field.
Volume 66 of Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry is based on a two day short course entitled Paleoaltimetry: Geochemical and Thermodynamic Approaches held prior to the Geological Society of American annual meeting in Denver, Colorado (October 26-27, 2007). This meeting and volume were sponsored by the Geochemical Society, Mineralogical Society of America, and the United States Department of Energy. Contents: The Significance of Paleotopography Stable Isotope-Based Paleoaltimetry: Theory and Validation Paleoelevation Reconstruction Using Pedogenic Carbonates Stable Isotope Paleoaltimetry in Orogenic Belts - The Silicate Record in Surface and Crustal Geological Archives Paleoaltimetry from Stable Isotope Compositions of Fossils A Review of Paleotemperature-Lapse Rate Methods for Estimating Paleoelevation from Fossil Floras Paleoaltimetry: A Review of Thermodynamic Methods Paleoelevation Measurement on the Basis of Vesicular Basalts Stomatal Frequency Change Over Altitudinal Gradients: Prospects for Paleoaltimetry Thermochronologic Approaches to Paleotopography Terrestrial Cosmogenic Nuclides as Paleoaltimetric Proxies
Volume 56 of the Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry reviews the current state of knowledge on the epidote minerals with special emphasis on the advances that were made since the comprehensive review of Deer et al. (1986). In the Introduction, we review the structure, optical data and crystal chemistry of this mineral group, all of which form the basis for understanding much of the following material in the volume. In addition, we provide some information on special topics, such as morphology and growth, deformation behavior, and gemology. Thermodynamic properties (Chapter 2, Gottschalk), the spectroscopy of the epidote minerals (Chapter 3, Liebscher) and a review of the experimental studies (Chapter 4, Poli and Schmidt) constitute the first section of chapters. These fields are closely related, and all three chapters show the significant progress over the last years, but that some of the critical questions such as the problem of miscibility and miscibility gaps are still not completely solved. This section concludes with a review of fluid inclusion studies (Chapter 5, Klemd), a topic that turned out to be of large interest for petrogenetic interpretation, and leads to the description of natural epidote occurrences in the second section of the book. These following chapters review the geological environments of the epdiote minerals, from low temperature in geothermal fields (Chapter 6, Bird and Spieler), to common metamorphic rocks (Chapter 7, Grapes and Hoskin) and to high- and ultrahigh pressure (Chapter 8, Enami, Liou and Mattinson) and the magmatic regime (Chapter 9, Schmidt and Poli). Allanite (Chapter 10, Gieré and Sorensen) and piemontite (Chapter 11, Bonazzi and Menchetti), on which a large amount of information is now available, are reviewed in separate chapters. Finally trace element (Chapter 12, Frei, Liebscher, Franz and Dulski) and isotopic studies, both stable and radiogenic isotopes (Chapter 13, Morrison) are considered. We found it unavoidable that there is some overlap between individual chapters. This is an inherited problem in a mineral group such as the epidote minerals, which forms intensive solid solutions between the major components of rock forming minerals as well as with trace elements.
England, 1817 Captain Lacey takes a post as a secretary at the Sudbury School in Berkshire, a school for sons of the wealthiest merchants and bankers in England. As soon as he arrives, Lacey discovers that he´s been hired for more than his letter-writing skills. A series of disturbing pranks have kept the school in an uproar, and the headmaster expects Lacey to discover the identity of the prankster. The problems intensify when a groom from the school´s stables turns up dead in a lock of the nearby canal. A Romany is arrested for the murder, and Lacey is the only person who believes him innocent. As Lacey works to discover what happened, he gets drawn into the secrets of Marianne Simmons, the actress who lived upstairs from Lacey in London. Marianne swears Lacey to silence, which puts a new strain on his friendship with Grenville. Meanwhile the intrigue surrounding the murder becomes as murky as the waters of the canal itself and puts Lacey and Grenville into deadly danger. The Sudbury School Murders won the RT Book Reviews Reviewers Choice Award for Best Historical Mystery. 1. Language: English. Narrator: James Gillies. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/035931/bk_acx0_035931_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.