This book highlights the latest advances in rotifer studies in various fields including aquaculture, ecology, gerontology and ecotoxicology. The genus Brachionus are an indispensable type of zooplankton, having served as an initial live food for marine larval rearing since the 1960s. Their mass culture techniques have been intensively studied, and some essential achievements have been made - regarding high density culture, employment of valuable dietary algae, automated culture systems, and effective production of resting eggs. These have in turn supported stable and efficient aquatic seedling production for numerous important marine fish species including flounder, sea bream, and bluefin tuna. Further, this group is considered to be a suitable model for studying various aspects in ecology. A series of aquaculture and basic science studies have significantly advanced our understanding of the life history evolution. The studies in these two fields are closely linked, and provide readers with comprehensive information on how rotifers are now being employed in biological investigations. Editors Atsushi Hagiwara PhD, Professor, Graduate School of Fisheries and Environmental Sciences, Nagasaki University Tatsuki Yoshinaga PhD, Associate Professor School of Marine Biosciences, Kitasato University
This book provides an update on the phylogeny, systematics and ecology of horses in South America based on data provided over the past three decades. The contemporary South American mammalian communities were shaped by the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama and by the profound climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene. Horses were a conspicuous group of immigrant mammals from North America that arrived in South America during the Pleistocene. This group is represented by 2 genera, Hippidion and Equus, which include small species (Hippidion devillei, H. saldiasi, E. andium and E. insulatus) and large forms (Equus neogeus and H. principale). Both groups arrived in South America via 2 different routes. One model designed to explain this migration indicates that the small forms used the Andes corridor, while larger horses used the eastern route and arrived through some coastal areas. Molecular dating (ancient DNA) suggests that the South American horses separated from the North American taxa (caballines and the New World stilt-legged horse) after 3.6 - 3.2 Ma, consistent with the final formation of the Panamanian Isthmus. Recent studies of stable isotopes in these horses indicate an extensive range of ?13C values cover closed woodlands to C4 grasslands. This plasticity agrees with the hypothesis that generalist species and open biome specialist species from North America indicate a positive migration through South America. Professor Prado is internationally known for his contributions to the study of fossil horses and paleobiology in South America. He has published over 140 articles in leading international journals, including Nature, Science, PNAS, BMC ecology and Evolutionary Ecology. Prof. Prado. He has also extensive experience managing large research grants. He is frequently invited to present his research at international conferences. His research has made substantial contributions to our understanding of horse evolution, particularly in relation to diversification and extinction processes. Dr. Alberdi is an internationally respected paleontologist who has extensive experience in South America. She currently works at the National Museum of Natural Sciences (CSIC) in Spain, where she was a Vice-Director and also head of the Paleontology department. She is active at the Natural Resources Scientific Committee and is a reviewer for a number of leading paleontology and vertebrates journals.
This volume contains studies on the evolution and function of lightweight constructions of planktonic and other organisms, and examples of how they can be used to create new solutions for radical innovations of lightweight constructions for technological application. The principles and underlying processes responsible for evolution and biodiversity of marine plankton organisms are highly relevant and largely unresolved issues in the field of marine science. Amongst the most promising objects for the study of evolution of stable lightweight constructions are marine organisms such as diatoms or radiolarians. Research in these fields requires interdisciplinary expertises such as in evolutionary modelling, paleontology, lightweight optimization, functional morphology, and marine ecology. Considerable effort and expert knowledge in production engineering or lightweight optimization is necessary to transfer knowledge on biogenic structures and evolutionary principles into new lightweight solutions. This book show methods and examples of how this can be achieved efficiently.
This volume includes treatments of systematics and related topics for both fungi and fungus-like organisms in four eukaryotic supergroups, as well as specialized chapters on nomenclature, techniques and evolution. These organisms are of great interest to mycologists, plant pathologists and others, including those interested in the animal parasitic Microsporidia. Our knowledge of the systematics and evolution of fungi has made great strides since the first edition of this volume, largely driven by molecular phylogenetic analyses. Consensus among mycologists has led to a stable systematic treatment that has since become widely adopted and is incorporated into this second edition, along with a great deal of new information on evolution and ecology. The systematic chapters cover occurrence, distribution, economic importance, morphology and ultrastructure, development of taxonomic theory, classification, and maintenance and culture. Other chapters deal with nomenclatural changes necessitated by revisions of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, including the elimination of separate names for asexual states, as well as methods for preservation of cultures and specimens, character evolution and methods for ultrastructural study, the fungal fossil record, and the impact of whole genomes on fungal studies.
This book is a useful guide for researchers in ecology and earth science interested in the use of accelerator mass spectrometry technology. The development of research in radiocarbon measurements offers an opportunity to address the human impact on global carbon cycling and climate change. Presenting radiocarbon theory, history, applications, and analytical techniques in one volume builds a broad outline of the field of radiocarbon and its emergent role in defining changes in the global carbon cycle and links to climate change. Each chapter presents both classic and cutting-edge studies from different disciplines involving radiocarbon and carbon cycling. The book also includes a chapter on the history and discovery of radiocarbon, and advances in radiocarbon measurement techniques and radiocarbon theory. Understanding human alteration of the global carbon cycle and the link between atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and climate remains one of the foremost environmental problems at the interface of ecology and earth system science. Many people are familiar with the terms global warming and climate change, but fewer are able to articulate the science that support these hypotheses. This book addresses general questions such as: what is the link between the carbon cycle and climate change; what is the current evidence for the fate of carbon dioxide added by human activities to the atmosphere, and what has caused past changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide? How can the radiocarbon and stable isotopes of carbon combined with other tools be used for quantifying the human impact on the global carbon cycle? The authors of this book are leading authorities on radiocarbon measurements, and application in the fields of ecology and earth system science. Schuur is a professor at Northern Arizona University and is an expert in terrestrial carbon cycling; Trumbore is a director at the Max Planck Institute for biogeochemistry and is an expert in terrestrial carbon cycling; Druffel is a professor at the University of California, Irvine and is an expert in ocean carbon cycling.
Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation from the year 2015 in the subject Biology - Ecology, grade: PhD, The Open University, course: Marine Chemical Ecology, language: English, abstract: Marine organisms rely on chemical cues - most as scents - to obtain information (i.e. infochemicals) about their environment. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from plants represent one group of infochemicals that can shape ecological interactions and the structure of the ecosystems through the influence of behaviour of receivers. However, there is still little evidence about the ecological importance of VOCs on the structure and interactions of mesograzers community within ecosystems like the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica. The studies presented in this thesis were designed, using behavioural choice assays, to investigate the effects of epiphytes-borne VOCs from Posidonia oceanica on the associated benthic invertebrates and further clarify how their responses to these putative infochemicals could affect the spatial organization of this stable community. The objectives of this thesis were: 1) to standardize a behavioural choice method for benthic invertebrates (e.g. static chambers vs. flumes and the determination of the species-specific minimum number of replicates); 2) to define the existence of associative behavioural patterns of invertebrates (i.e. molluscs and decapods) to epiphyte-borne VOCs at the community level; 3) to identify the roles of VOCs as infochemicals (e.g. food or toxins cues); and 4) to investigate the behavioural responses to infochemicals within the range of pH levels predicted for the end of this century. Species-specific behaviours of mesograzers to VOCs depended on the method of investigation, the concentration of VOCs tested, body constraints and animal ecology. Overall, the contribution of this thesis to knowledge is that, within ecosystems like the seagrass P. oceanica, co-evolutionary patterns of infochemicals create microhabitats and the coexistence of herbivores on a single plant leaf. These findings support a better understanding of the entire ecosystem for further coastal management also in prevision of near-future climate changes.